Mark has an interesting story to tell — he was a priest, who then left Christianity and found an alternative in Greek philosophy particularly Plato and depth psychology. As for me, I was never a Christian, but found a form of practical spirituality in ancient philosophy. Here are some initial thoughts, please chime in with your own thoughts too.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle Frenchbut there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages, generally.
A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, beginning, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning.
By the end of World War IIracism had acquired the same supremacist connotations formerly associated with racialism: The term "race hatred" had also been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late s.
As its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is relatively recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazismwhich saw "race" as a naturally given political unit.
Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not easily fall under a single definition and they also argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas.
First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups; second, a set of ideas an ideology about racial differences; and, third, discriminatory actions practices. The UDHR recognizes that if people are to be treated with dignity, they require economic rightssocial rights including educationand the rights to cultural and political participation and civil liberty.
It further states that everyone is entitled to these rights "without distinction of any kind, such as race, coloursexlanguagereligionpolitical or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
According to the UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descentor national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.
They are born equal in dignity and rights and all form an integral part of humanity. Sociology of race and ethnic relations Sociologistsin general, recognize "race" as a social construct.
This means that, although the concepts of race and racism are based on observable biological characteristics, any conclusions drawn about race on the basis of those observations are heavily influenced by cultural ideologies.
Racism, as an ideology, exists in a society at both the individual and institutional level. While much of the research and work on racism during the last half-century or so has concentrated on "white racism" in the Western world, historical accounts of race-based social practices can be found across the globe.
In studies of these majority white societies, the aggregate of material and cultural advantages is usually termed " white privilege ". Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics.
Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism. Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned by sociologist W.
Du Bois wrote, "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line. Racial ideologies and racial identity affect individuals' perception of race and discrimination. Racial centrality the extent to which a culture recognizes individuals' racial identity appears to affect the degree of discrimination African American young adults perceive whereas racial ideology may buffer the detrimental emotional effects of that discrimination.
The "newer" more hidden and less easily detectable forms of racism—which can be considered embedded in social processes and structures—are more difficult to explore as well as challenge.
It has been suggested that, while in many countries overt or explicit racism has become increasingly tabooeven among those who display egalitarian explicit attitudes, an implicit or aversive racism is still maintained subconsciously. Implicit attitudes are evaluations that occur without conscious awareness towards an attitude object or the self.
These evaluations are generally either favorable or unfavorable. They come about from various influences in the individual experience. In thinking about crime, for example, social psychologist Jennifer L. Eberhardt of Stanford University holds that, "blackness is so associated with crime you're ready to pick out these crime objects.
Thus, racist thoughts and actions can arise from stereotypes and fears of which we are not aware. Discourse analysis seeks to reveal the meaning of race and the actions of racists through careful study of the ways in which these factors of human society are described and discussed in various written and oral works.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or arteensevilla.com of the s, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition. The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Facsimile PDF MB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book. Kindle KB This is an E-book formatted for Amazon Kindle devices. EBook PDF KB This. The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued .
Van Dijkfor example, examines the different ways in which descriptions of racism and racist actions are depicted by the perpetrators of such actions as well as by their victims. Du Bois, represents early African-American literature that describes the author's experiences with racism when he was traveling in the South as an African American.
Much American fictional literature has focused on issues of racism and the black "racial experience" in the US, including works written by whites such as Uncle Tom's CabinTo Kill a Mockingbirdand Imitation of Lifeor even the non-fiction work Black Like Me. These books, and others like them, feed into what has been called the " white savior narrative in film ", in which the heroes and heroines are white even though the story is about things that happen to black characters.
Textual analysis of such writings can contrast sharply with black authors' descriptions of African Americans and their experiences in US society. African American writers have sometimes been portrayed in African-American studies as retreating from racial issues when they write about " whiteness ", while others identify this as an African American literary tradition called "the literature of white estrangement", part of a multipronged effort to challenge and dismantle white supremacy in the US.
A Genealogy posits modern racism similarly, focusing on the notion of a dominant group, usually whites, vying for racial purity and progress, rather than an overt or obvious ideology focused on the oppression of nonwhites.
Often, the two are listed together as "racial and ethnic" in describing some action or outcome that is associated with prejudice within a majority or dominant group in society.The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of poetry, novels and picture books.
Demography. The Netherlands had a population of 15,, in It is the most densely populated country in Europe (1, inhabitants per square mile [ per square kilometer] in ). arteensevilla.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of arteensevilla.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
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A history of Europe during the Middle Ages including its people, rulers, government, culture, wars and contributions to modern civilization. Africa, Emerging Civilizations In Sub-Sahara Africa Various Authors. Edited By: R. A. Guisepi. Date: Native Cultures In Sub-Sahara Africa.
Oct 06, · of Christian art, music, or architecture from each of the following: Eastern icons Western Medieval Renaissance Modern Create a to slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation in which you explain how the chosen works illustrate the following: Basic Christian beliefs that emerged in the.